Multiple Physics associated in EV development

An electric vehicle, also referred to as EV, is a vehicle which is powered entirely or partially by electricity. EVs use electricity stored in a battery pack which in turn drive the electric motor to power the wheels. The power source for batteries can either be grid electricity or alternate power sources like IC engine or Fuel Cells. To design and develop, EV Systems, one needs to study multiple physics which are associated with the EV systems. This article briefly summarises the different types physics associated with EV development.

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Electromagnetics is a branch of physics dealing with the electromagnetic force that occurs due to interactions between charged particles. When an electric current flows through a wire it generates a magnetic field. This concept in electricity is very important while understanding the working of electric motors. This physics helps designers to predict different types losses associated with the system (cogging, windage, ohmic)
Components: Electric Motors, Alternators

Heat Transfer:

The branch of physics which deals with the heat generation and heat dissipation. In the EV Systems, heat is generated in batteries because of

  • Chemical reactions in the batteries
  • Electric current in the motor/ alternators windings and losses
The dissipation of heat generated in batteries and motors/ alternators is highly critical factor in the performance and durability of EV systems.

Fluid Mechanics:

Fluid mechanics comes in picture in the EV system while designing effective cooling systems for the sub- assemblies. There could be air cooling or liquid cooling required for the maintaining the temperatures in the system. Battery packaging is one of the most critical design activity in the EV systems.

Structural Mechanics:

Structural mechanics is required for designing components of the EV systems from stress, stiffness, fatigue, durability perspective. The system is subjected to no. of fluctuating mechanical and thermal loads. Mechanical loads could be because of Electromagnetic forces, road reactions and vibrations.

Material Science:

Material science incorporates elements of physics, chemistry and engineering. It mainly deals with properties of matter and its applications. EV product developers who are always looking for optimized and light weight products or assemblies rely a lot on material science innovations. Composite is one of the interesting area for developing light weight structures.


Electrochemistry is the study of chemical process that generates electricity. Electrochemical fundamentals play a key role in development of rechargeable battery systems
One of the challenges is to consider effect of one physics on to the one while designing EV Systems in order to develop optimized and durable systems.

We at ESPL have developed good expertise in Multi- physics simulations of EV Systems. If your team is looking for any kind of CAE/ CFD support in this area, kindly get in touch with us. Contact details are as below.

Equilibrium Solutions Pvt. Ltd.
Phone: +91-20-25420085
Contact Point: Mr. Adwait Gokhale

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